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Research Updates | Diabetes

Food sources and glycaemic control

13 / 02 / 19

Finding:

The food source and energy content of a food or drink with fructose-containing sugars mediates its effect on glycaemic control. Sugar sweetened beverages that add excess energy have harmful effects, but most food sources (especially fruit) do not.

Summary: 

Controlled intervention studies of at least seven days’ duration and assessing the effect of different food sources of fructose-containing sugars on glycaemic control in people with and without diabetes were included (a total of 155 study comparisons). Most of the evidence was classified as low quality. Total fructose-containing sugars had no harmful effect on any outcomes in substitution or subtraction studies. In fact in substitution studies, a reduction in HbA1C (a beneficial outcome) was found. A harmful effect was seen on fasting insulin in addition studies and ad-libitum studies. There was an interaction by food source: fruit and fruit juice were beneficial and sweetened milk and mixed sources were harmful in substitution studies; and harmful effects from SSB and fruit juice were noted in addition studies on at least one outcome. The authors conclude more high quality RCTs are needed.

Citation: 

Choo VL, Viguiliouk E, Blanco Mejia S et al. Food sources of fructose-containing sugars and glycaemic control: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled intervention studies. BMJ 2018;363:k4644 https://www.bmj.com/content/363/bmj.k4644