Research Updates | Cardiovascular disease
Study design: meta-analysis
There is much debate on the role of fructose in cardiovascular risk. This meta-analysis examined the effects of fructose on established lipid targets in 51 controlled isocaloric feeding trials in which fructose was substituted for other carbohydrates, and 8 hypercaloric trials in which fructose was provided in excess compared to controlled diets (21-35% energy).
Fructose had no effect on LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, triglycerides, or HDL cholesterol in isocaloric trials, whereas in hypercaloric trials fructose in excess increased apolipoprotein B in 2 trials, and increased triglycerides in 8 trials. The authors suggest this study is limited by small sample size, limited follow up and low quality of the included trials.